Castle Wenden

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Castle Wenden is the residence of the master of the Livonian order in Cesis with developed system of forburgov is the most important part of the historic core of the city. Cesis stone castle, by definition, Dr.h.arh j. Krastin′ša is "one of the most spectacular and emotionally expressive monuments of medieval architecture in Latvia".

The first mention of Cesis in written historical sources appeared in the early 13 c., when it was mentioned in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (in 1208 as Wenden), and in the Novgorod Chronicle (in 1221 g., under the name Kes′). Other variants are known: in some Russian Chronicles of Cesis is mentioned as "Pertuev″" (there are echoes of a dangerous enemy of Russian-master of the 10th province of the brothers-Berthold).

The original Knights of the brothers settled in the castle of Riekstukalnse, and the Wends 1209 he started to build a stone castle on a nearby Hill, a Baltic separated by a moat of the ancient castle of the Wends. The construction of the castle is connected with the name of the first master's Respectively of the brothers (also known as Wine) von Rorbahom (1202-1209). The first master of the order, according to Chronicles and as remembered by the people, was appointed a very devout and redkostno just a Knight by the name of Those who by the grace of God and the Blessed Virgin soizvoleniem began to build the castle of Cēsis to adopt here the name of the Lord for all eternity, and to deny the Gentiles even the slightest hope of apostasy.

In the ancient books, the authors of which were under the influence of the erroneous hypothesis von Sievers, sometimes you can find that in 1209, 2005 here, in Cesis, master's Respectively and his chaplain Johannes killed the order's brother Vikbert von Sosat. In fact this happened in ordenskom Castle in Riga.

Castle Wenden was built in the later system of fortifications to protect the border territories in Northern Estonia and Latvia. The city grew slowly around the Castle, mentioned as early as 1221, the Chronicles as a settlement near the Castle. As the city of Cesis was recorded in historical documents, 1323. Already in 1208, the Germans managed to embroil Latvian land Talavu and Ugauniû (locality in the South-East of Estonia). This spring, a military alliance against the Estonians was signed between the order of the sword-Commander of the order of the Berthold of Cēsis and Latvian leaders.

The Knight Berthold started its active work in Cesis with 1207, and was one of the main and the most active organizers of conquest. A big part of the Commander of the Cēsis castle proves the structure of the order in which the post of the Commander of the Cēsis castle was Assistant Master of the brothers. The Chronicle of Henry directly calls the Berthold Cēsis master (keeping in mind, of course, a provincial master, not the Supreme Commander of the order). In the book by d. Vasmanisa is written: by the head of the order was chosen by the master. Master had Assistant-"the Grand Commander of the order of who had the right in some cases, substitute for the master's degree. In addition the order were two provincial master, who lived in Cesis and Sigulda. History knows of two provincial masters in Cesis. The first of these is the brother of Berthold-acted with 1207, and contributed to the strife between old latgallians and Estonians. The Berthold continued until 1216, when he fell at the battle of Otepää. Berthold's tenure was succeeded by Rudolf Kassel, who was a provincial master of the order until the fall after the defeat in the battle of Saule.

In 1212, the Cēsis Knights stole latgallians Autine field and sides. It's so exasperating latgallians and the Livs, that they first decided to open resistance to the Crusaders. The center of the uprising was the castle of Dabrelisa in the District of Mound. As noted by all historians, it was the first armed uprising of the local people against the German invaders. Cesis was the Centre of this extensive suppression of the uprising. In later years the castle was again the Centre of Livonia war. In the Chronicle of Henry of Latvia States that in 1221, the citizens of Novgorod came up with a large army to Cesisu. Knights of the order with the Wends are ready to cooperate with them to the gate, but unable to resist their number, they set fire to houses and a village and returned to the castle of Livonia.

Then the most serious opponent for the inhabitants of the Cēsis castle remained the Lithuanians, who, in their campaigns many times to the town, but could not capture it. The first most notable prisoner Cesis Castle dungeons in 1213, it was the Lithuanian-kunigajt (Prince) Daugerute, the father of his wife Visvaldisa-Duke of Jersika latgallians, victim Of political games. Daugerute, who was kept in chains, being unable to regain his freedom, or to avoid shameful and painful torture, zakolovsya your own sword. The brothers of the order without remorse captured Daugerutisa, who as Lithuanian Ambassador went to polatsk, and concluded it in the Cesis Castle. Take away freedom-is Yes, but deprive lay magnate honor, even if he was a pagan, the Knights themselves are not allowed. So Daugerutisa and was with a sword at his place of detention, which emphasized the high position of the prisoner.

In 1236, the battle of Saule Livonian brothers of the sword was destroyed and the remains of the joined the Teutonic order, forming the branch-the Livonian order. A year later, in 1237, the Hermann Balk, master of the Livonian order, first chose the castle of Livonia place his residence. This was due to the fact that the Centre had conquered the territories of Cesis: here crossed the trade routes from Riga, Pskov, Derpta. A role played by the Gauja and shipping. By the way, the Cēsis castle museum stated that Hermann Balk chose the castle of Livonia as his residence in 1239, which then became the main residence of the master of the order, while the Cesisu and had to share this honor with Riga and, sometimes, in Viljandi. Residence of the master of the Livonian order was in Cesis in 1297-1330, 1429-1434, 1470-1471, 1481-1560 b.c., as well as in Riga in 1330, 1429-1434-1470, 1471-1481 ad. The Castle also became a meeting place of Livonia chapter of the Livonian Order-paramount executives (in 1239-1561 a.d., with short breaks). The Castle has lived about 30 Knights, but in case of war, their number increased. Near the Castle also settled military mercenaries. At the time of the order in the realm of the Cēsis castle, there were 10 parishes with 273 farms. Cēsis as residence of the master and Commander was also the place of important medieval historical events. Here were the main issues of war and peace, the ambassadors discussed the domestic issues of the Livonian order.

The Livonian order was in critical situation in the summer of 1260 in Kurzeme region, in the town of Durba samogitians, Curonians and Estonians defeated the Crusaders, and on the battlefield remained the master of the Livonian Order Burchart von Hornhuzen, landmaršal of the Teutonic Knights, Heinrich Botel (the second person of the order and its Supreme Commander), as well as 150 orders of brothers. Winged victory over Germans revolted Semigallians, Curonians, Prussians. The Lithuanian King Mindaugas, taking advantage of the situation, gave up Catholicism and from the Treaty with the Livonian order, formed an alliance with Novgorod and in 1261 he went to March to the home residence of Cesis is falling Orders. At Cēsis walked another Lithuanian troops also kunigajta-Lengevinasa (between 1244 and 1247), the former a son of Mindaugas, sisters who ruled in North-eastern Lithuania territories of Zarasai district. In these battles were heavy Force Commander of Cēsis, Knight himself was killed.

Cesis is associated with the first mention of the Latvian flag in its current form. In 1279, the chieftain of the semigallian Namej started a military campaign against the city, to avenge the siege of Dobele Castle. When the landmaršal (war Minister) of the Livonian Order Gerhard von Kacenellenbogen urged Latvians to assistance from Cēsis Regiment went to Latvian zemessargs with a red flag with a white stripe in the middle. In 1297, the rigans took over the order's Castle Vittenštajn and defeated it, the residence of the master of the Livonian Order Castle is again in Cesis. The first after a short break in the Castle settled master Bruno, perhaps the only master, whose name is not mentioned in any of the known master of the order of the lists.

Since the first years of the conquest of the Baltic States continued controversies and disputes between the rulers of the Livonia order and the Archbishop of Riga. Mutual contradiction to settle by force of arms. In the internecine battles usually has been affected and the city of Cēsis (so, in 1314, Archbishop Friedrich of Pernstejn robs a Town several land holdings), and district. The main losses were possessions of the Archbishop. If with the brothers failed to take Raunskij Castle is one of the main residences of the Archbishop, only 18 km from Cēsis, they sought to annoy the Archbishop, pillaging of his vassals and peasants.

In the middle of the 14th century, with the conquest of the city, looting of property and the Archbishop of Riga Church and the Estonian order of the acquisition came dominance in Livonia. Cesis annually going to the order's General Chapter, at which top leaders Order reported on its work and on which the designated border officials and filmed. There were foreign ambassadors, have decided the very important issues of war and peace. The Commander of the Cēsis castle has always held a very high position in the hierarchy of the order. The tradition that began with the provincial master of the brothers Berthold and his times, the Livonian Order's State when the castle was the Centre of the Trestles.

The influence of the Livonian order in the komtur of Cēsis indirectly shows the following small example. In 1330, after 33-year-old war with the order of the city of Riga was compelled to surrender to the mercy of the winners-the Livonian border brothers. Master of Eberhard von Mongejm dictated peace conditions heavy. Among the other duties of the loser of the city continue to include participation in all the military campaigns of the master, but if camping on its own initiative take the Knight Cesis Riga necessarily had to send him reinforcements-30 armed horsemen. In relation to other komturam such as in Riga was not. According to the chronicler Honeke, in 1368, 2005 komtury Daugavgrivy, Sigulda, Cesis, Kuldiga, and went into battle under their own colors, and komtur of Cēsis flag was white with a black cross. From Cesis maintained close links with the Supreme Master of the Teutonic order, Marienburg (now Malbork, Poland), which gave their instructions and orders.

Relations with Lithuanians and in this century have remained strained, and the attack of the Castle came many of the troops, including the Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas (Algirdas) (1345-1377), son of Gediminas. In peace time, at least twice a year, master of the Livonian order was required to convene at a meeting of officials of the order of Livonia-chapter. These annual meetings of the order of the divine and the meeting was opened by the master. Here are all the officials were a written report on its activities for the period since the previous chapter time, and household income and expenditure books of their castles. There were eliminated, and moved into the positions of the members of the order. Only with the permission of the chapter of the order of the master could leave Livonia, conclude treaties, lease Of land, divide Len income locks, determine the rights and duties of the residents. In addition to kapitulov, from 1401 in Cesis has gathered and diet.

1413, 2005 was a turning point in history. First master of Livonian order prescribed outside of Livonia, but then was installed in the following order: the chapter of the order of the Cesis has two candidates, one of whom, the Supreme Master of the Teutonic order had to approve the post of master. Since then, both orders, the struggle between the so-called "vestfal′cami" and "Rhinelanders".

In addition to the residence of the master of the Livonian order and the Commander was in the Castle and the residence of the bailiff's. It was later made a "census" of cash orders, of which today we know that in 1451 in Livonia were brothers of the order: 195 270 Knights, priests and 28 47 polubrat′ev or grey Knights. Of those 195 Knights, only two were born in Livonia, and the rest were foreigners: 161 Belgian Warmblood and 26 rejncev. How small was the Knights in individual castles can be seen from the following figures: in Riga, Cesis, 19-14, Sigulda-12, Kuldiga, Aluksne, 12-7, Bauska-3, Rezekne-3, etc. of course, Order the army was more numerous as such: about 4000 swords in the early 15th century: 300 brothers of the Knights, mercenaries and the orders of about 1200 2500 vassal riders. In addition hundreds of riflemen, light cavalry lejmanov and, finally, about 20 thousand. peasant zemessargs.

In 1469, the master of the order was Johann Vol′thuz (also known as the Vol′thuzen-Hertz). But in March of the same year, top leaders of the order of dismissal of Johann Vol′thuzena-Hertz from the authorities, arrested him in Helmete (Estonia) and was taken under police escort to the castle of Livonia. There and imprisoned in the Dungeon of one of the towers of the Castle, accusing him of corruption, in the war against the Russians, against all advice and to consolidate a few personally komturstv with all proceeds. After the verdict, Vol′thuzenu-Herz chapter of the order of the residence of the master of the order, to defer again in Riga, and assigned to the Earth Vol′thuzenom return komturam Jerve, Põltsamaa, Rakvere, Viljandi (all in Estonia) and Alūksne. Despite a petition for the release of his brother and some of the German princes, Vol′thuzen-Hertz was released and died in prison a few years later (in 1472 or 1473, 2005). However, the order has had a posthumous honour to him, buried in the Church of St. John in Cesis. The arrest of master of the order of the brothers split into two parties. Adherents of the Vol′thuzena appealed to the High Court of God, because Of the continued arbitrary practices associated with truancy officers.

During the master's Bernd von der Borja in Cesis organized a minting of coins-the fourth in Livonia (along with Riga, Tallinn and Tartu) there minted shillings, pfennigi, etc. the coins, with up to 1 second half of XVI century Cesis was the only provincial city of Livonia, which had the right to Mint coin. The first coins produced here in 1472, the schillings, festivals and other coins with the inscription Moneta Wendes or Moneta Wenden. The Mint was located in the western part of the Town. Near the gate of Katrinas was casting (Monetary) Tower, so sometimes it is called Mint that minted the coins not is incorrect in the Tower, and in specially equipped workshop.

If in time of peace, von der Borch somehow cope with the duties of master, the 1480-ies. Cesisskomu district had to transfer the paramountcy of battles between the order and the youngest. In 1482, the inhabitants managed to take the castle of Koknesskij (the territory of the Archdiocese at the time actually was annexed to the possessions of the order). Troops of the order, in turn, surrounded the Castle Augstroze, and when it went to help the people led by Hartwug Vinhol′da, master of Bernhard von der Borch and his knights is disgraceful, escaped to the castle of Livonia without even trying to fight with the army of Castle toward residents, allowing the latter thoroughly plunder surroundings of Cesis. It was the last straw for order capitulum to his master. Von der Borch was removed from his post, losing its revel′skomu komturu Johann Frejtagu von Loringhofenu.

But after winning over Riga in 1491, the order's master continued to live in Cesis-first because of the Riga Castle was leveled to the ground by angry landowners came here and it was restored only in the beginning of the 16th century however, master Walter von Plettenberg, assessing the benefits of the Cēsis castle, transformed it into a place of permanent residence; and this choice was acceptable and subsequent masters, until the dissolution of the order in 1562 and the Plettenberg in Cesis June 6, 1501 was ratified a Union Treaty between Lithuania and the order against the Russians. During the rule of the master Walter fired a number of reorganizations in the Cesis Castle. During his reign, has increased the importance of the city of Cesis. When it started to Mint gold coins.

The master had to survive the Reformation, which significantly influenced the situation in the Baltic States, where the overwhelming majority of the population, as Germans and non-Germans (the latter, however, often quite formally) converted to Lutheranism. Although, as befits the master of Catholic spiritual and military orders, not adopted Lutheranism itself Plettenberg, he did not consider it possible for religious affairs to start civil war (this restraint in Western Europe has aroused the suspicion of being sympathetic to Luther Plettenberga), and was tolerant of Lutheran. In the history of the reformation in Livonia, Cesis fell due to the prisoner in April 1533, the Treaty that (mostly due to the pressure of the vassals and the Livonian cities) was signed by the Livonian order, Coadjutor Bishop (i.e. the Assistant Archbishop) of Riga William of Brandenburg and Riga to defend Lutherans and the threat of civil war. Master paid much attention to strengthening of the Livonian order. Using the weakness of the Teutonic Knights, the Grand Master of Plettenberg Albrecht von Hohenzollern, Margrave of Brandenburg, bought three of the law, which has made: directly by Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire; the direct domination of Northern Estonia; the right to the Livonian order to appoint its master.

Walter von Plettenberg died in Cēsis castle in February 1535, and was buried in the altar of the Church of St. John Castle, where already rested its predecessors Vol′thuzen-Hertz (1472 or 1473) and Frejtag von Loringhofen (1494). Tombstone of master Walter survived only a fragment, which is now placed in the Church belfry. In the Community Hall, previously it was possible to see the monument erected in the Church in 1855, this monument can be considered the assessment of the ostzejskim by the master and his role in the history of Livonia. In the church you can see the bust of Plettenberga-a copy of the marble original, established in Germany, in the District of Regensburg Triskelion just as Hank arrives.

Meanwhile in Livonia expanded religious movement of the Reformation. In 1524, the residents of the town have called for a otstupivšegosâ of the Catholic priest of the Berend Brugmana (Brigmana), expelled from Koknese by order of Archbishop John Blankenfelda. First divine service in the spirit of the reformation in urban Brugman Foundry Tower (St. Catherine's Church). The Reformation also led in Cesis, one of the prominent representatives of humanistic literature in Baltics-Burkarda Valdis. In his literary writings of this time dominated the antikatoličeskie mood, but the author appealed against the German nobility. Very soon Burkarda Valdis, whose leadership of the movement accused of treason, was caught in the vicinity of Bauska (after 1527) and imprisoned, subjected to torture. Later he was transferred to the Cēsis castle, where he stayed until 1540 Valdis Burkard g. it may well be that in the cellars of the Cēsis castle, he would have stayed until the end of his days, however, thanks to the active efforts of the city of Riga and the ruler of their homeland, Philip, elector of Hesse, Burkarda was released, and he immediately went to Germany, where 16 years has served a Lutheran pastor. In Livonia he no longer appeared until his death.

In the middle ages believed that the person who hit the Cēsis castle cellars, there was no hope to get out of there, unless you order the brothers themselves were not released for any reasons. The only known case where a prisoner of the fortunate enough to escape from the Dungeon, refers to 1558, when such an event has been Hans Gunter, who inexplicably went out of the dungeons of the South Tower. The unprecedented event triggered a long debate during which agreed that the Hans helped himself the Lord of hell, as mortal man is not capable of. In 1999, during archaeological excavations Tower cleared of debris and it turned out that in theory such an escape was possible and nothing mystical in it.

The reign of Hinriha von Galen (master's degree from 1551 to 1557 a.d.) was held under the sign of military threats. In the years of the war, Tsar (the title Grand Prince of Moscow in 1547 g.) Ivan IV the terrible conquered the Tartar of East and South-East of Moscow, and began to increase the pressure on Livonia, which the next research master-William von Fuerstenberg has appealed to heavy and destructive across. Estates of Livonia felt dismissed the danger and tried to somehow prepare for war. In 1554, the Landtag in Cesis decided to send abroad to recruit mercenaries Commander dinaburg. The threat of foreign war, however, could not resolve internal strife. At this time, the small livonskie nation once again fought among themselves.

The Livonian order was not satisfied by the fact that the post of coadjutor (co-regent) Archbishop Wilhelm joined the German Prince Christoph, Duke of Mecklenburg, the ambitious plans which were subordinating all Livonia, to realize that managed to Albrecht of Prussia-the Secularization of the order and the Archdiocese, turning them into a secular Duchy. War razorâla and Cesis region. Because of the widespread demoralization for the conduct of hostilities from Germany were sent mercenaries-landsknehty, and in the struggle between the master and the Archbishop (1556-57 Gg.), these warriors have turned into thieves and arsonists. In June, troops of the 1556 went a sudden assault on Raunu, took and destroyed it. This event ended the latest internecine war in the history of Livonia.

In 1558 the first wave swept Livonia of Russian attacks. In July the Russians led by Prince Kurbskogo was able to split the squad orders troops near Cesis, however they have not dared to openly attack the castle of Livonia and the city and left. Already at the very beginning of the war the Cēsis edge Latvian soldiers were involved in the battles. In the autumn of 1558, the Germans surrounded the Russians in the castle of Ryuga (Estonia) and asked the master von Fürstenberg, for his take. From the town of sent in aid of two guns, 500 mercenaries and a few thousand of Latvian soldiers. Early in 1559, during the second wave of the Russian invasion, the invaders, among other things, took the castles of Skuene, Nitaure etc. However, the main events of the war so far passed Cēsis. Fürstenberg and his successor as master Gotthard Kettler then vainly searched for his allies. In 1558 and 1559 in Cesis held big diet, but without real consequences. In 1560 he was followed by the third invasion of the Russians, when Russian armies under Ergeme (or rather under-Lugazhi) finally crushed the forces of the order and captured the masters, as well as Fürstenberg, then 2 August burned and looted the Cēsis.

After the defeat of his troops saw salvation in Livonia to surrender any foreign State (like the State of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia became a vassal of Poland). Most of the Supreme rulers of the Livonian State have also decided in favour of the Polish King Sigismund II Augustus. In October and November 1561 in Vilnius were the Archbishop of Riga William of Brandenburg and master Gotthard Kettler, as well as representatives from several cities of Livonia-Riga, Cēsis and Valmiera. The delegation was led by the city of Cēsis Bastian bûrgermejster and Detmar Melchior Grotuzen, who then received a letter from the Polish King-a privilege that kept Lutheranism, countless benefits landlords and populate the Cesisu so-called "law of the city of Riga".

Formally, the rule of the Poles in the Cesis region began with the signing of the Treaty of Vilnius in 1561, the Livonia, during which the North of Daugava Duchy was created Pardaugavskoe. In the early years of supervision was entrusted to Gotardu Ketleru, but in 1566, the Polish King, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, appointed Governor of the Duchy of Hetman Jan Chodkiewicz-Jerome, who was a confidant of the Polish King, Governor of the Duchy of Pardaugavskim in 1566 in 1578, and was later also is an active participant in the Livonian war. J. Chodkiewicz, arriving in the Duchy, convened in 1566 in Cesis Landtag, which adopted the decision on the liquidation of the Riga Archbishopric and the subordination of Livonia Sigismund II Augustus. Meeting in the same year, the Lithuanian Seimas has established a "perpetual Union of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Duchy of Pardaugavskogo. The present territory of Latvia to the North of the Daugava River was divided into four County-Riga, Turaida, Cēsis and Daugavpils. This Division persisted until the end of the Livonian war. The Duchy was still threatened with military action, the possibility of economic development were limited.

Grozny appeared under the walls of Town August 31, 1577, and in place of the present railway station ordered install cannon. To lower the morale of the defenders of the city, the King said that they are allowed to bring back their captured Muscovites captive wives, mothers and daughters. Magnus with 23 accompanying (in Karamzin's 25) through the Raunskie gate left the city, commanded by bûrgermejsteram and Alderman, open the city gates to Muscovites that they did to gain the favor of the King; but through the open gate to the city stormed Muscovites, killing, destroying and burning. Amazed residents fled to the castle of Livonia, where already were landlords and people of Magnus (Christian Šrafer, Adviser to Prince Magnus, Mayor Sebastian Detmar, etc.). The elderly, the sick and children murdered, Moscow and healthy men and women were taken into slavery. The inhabitants of the Castle barely have time to close the gate through which Magnus as the Moscow streltsy were just a stone's throw from the castle walls.

Ivan the terrible ordered to besiege the castle of Livonia with four large shantsev and September 4, 1577 the town and Castle of Livonia mercilessly bombard the three days and three nights (in fact it took as many as five days). The castle walls were burst and crumble. It soon became clear that hold the lock there is no longer any hope. Therefore, in the Castle (according to the chronicler Russow-about 300 people), decided to commit suicide rather than fall into the hands of the Russians. They gathered in one of the halls of the Castle, and the castle's commander Heinrich Bojsmann-set the fire in the basement of the barrels of gunpowder, throwing out the window a burning wick. During the archaeological excavations of the 20th century have dramatic pictures of fighting of past times. So, in one of the basement of the West Wing of the Cēsis castle under 3-meter layer of debris excavated 3 women and 3 children's bones and bone fragments of another skeleton. Found near the skeleton coins and other items, as well as the circumstances of the finds indicate that the deceased victims of the Livonian war. In September 1577 and the siege by troops of Ivan the terrible, they looked for salvation in the cellars of the Castle, but found under struck the walls of death.

Tells chronicler b. Russow: "the Grand Duke in Cesis with wives and virgins who created such shameful and horrible things, which are not heard nor Turks nor the other tyrants. Men lashing whips and, wounded and bleeding, burned on the fire. The Mayor pulled out the heart out of his chest and one Pastor [Johan Šnellâ] tongue hanging out of his mouth. The other was a horrible way and their bodies, the same as under the Koknese and Sigulda, threw to feed the birds, dogs and wild beasts, and refused to allow them to bury. " B. Russow can be read and how the castle of Livonia was transferred to Polish King Stefan Batory: "Thinking and visionary people in Kurzeme and the Riga Archbishopric strongly agreed, that we should take away the Russians several castles in which there were few troops. The first attempt they made in Daugavpils, who amazingly quickly took over. A good start has given hope for the continuation of this case. So Turaida managing Johann Biring also decided to deprive the Russians of Cesis, because learned that the castle is a small garrison. 100 German and Polish 80 riders with 200 peasants under the cover of night with two siege ladders penetrated in Cesis, where faced with large predatory dogs, rvuŝimi and found eating dead bodies, which the Russians threw to be devoured by wild beasts and birds. The dogs howled, barked and roared so Biring and his people really fell in spirit, and he began to doubt the outcome. However, he decided to try his luck in Cēsis. Riders alighted, dragged the two long staircase in deep snow, prislonili to the walls and began to climb to the top. Climbing up, war, going down to the gallery in the gallery who were on the inside of the wall, reached land. Some of them along with drummer rushed immediately to the gate of the Castle, who stood day and night open to the Russians could pass from the castle to the city and back. Gates took over, and thus the path between the town and the castle was closed. Other soldiers hastily descended the stairs down. Cesis climbed a great noise, and the Russians have woken up. The Germans at the gate was a little, but the Russians, who were in town, we thought that the lock is engaged. Russians in the thought that the city is busy many thousands of Germans and poles. Therefore, the Russians in the Castle and town were frightened and looking for how to escape. The Germans are not difficult to open the city gates, they helped open some Latvian Locksmith, remaining Russians. People Biringa examined the cellars and attics in search of concealed by the Russians and making do with them as it should. It happened in December 1577,"

These events was enraged Ivan the terrible. His army was still in the surroundings of Cesis (take away Russian Raunskij Castle failed, and they remained there until 1582 a.d.). Expecting an imminent attack, Biring hastily fortified the Cēsis. In the spring of 1578, in Day of the candles, according to Russow, Russians again surrounded the Cēsis and repeatedly tried to storm, but to no avail. The osaždënnyh, however, was heavy, food shortages began. Biring with 40 riders at night broke through the siege and went to Riga for help. There is a version that getting food and soldiers, Biring came back, on the road spreading rumors of approaching a large army of perhaps Russians and lifted the siege and withdrew. In September-October, 1578 until local residents. the poles and Swedes were negotiating on joint action, the Russians were in Cesis with 1800 soldiers, heavy and light guns. The Swedes retreated to Burtniekskogo Castle.

The loss of the Cēsis castle označila turning point in the war, interrupting a series of victories of Ivan the terrible. The battle of 1578, under the Cesis wrote Karamzin: at the end of the summer the Governors of Moscow, Prince Vasily Galitzine Ivan Yurevich Agiševič Tumen, Hvorostinin, Tûfâkin had to go immediately to Vendenu, but the arguing about načal′stve, not by Decree; John sent in Dorpat Deacon Andrei Ŝelkalova, a nobleman of his beloved, and Danila saltykova, Velev they change the Governor in case of further disobedience. Finally they have made, giving time to manufacture the enemy and Lithuanians to connect with the Swedes; Livonia and laid siege to the Castle by a few days (21 October) saw an enemy for himself; Sapieha with Litvoû and the Germans, General Battle with the Swedes attacked 18000 Russians, barely managed to line up out of their trenches. Long fought bravely; the Tatar Cavalry in a slim but decisive hour gave our troops and fled. Russians backslide, mingled, retreated to fortifications, where heavily pal′boû has kept the enemy. The night ended the battle; Sapieha and a fight waiting for the morning, but Golitsyn, diplomat Fedor Sheremetev, Prince Andrey Palickij, along with d′âkom Ŝelkalovym, in the madness of fear has already jumped to greyhounds riding to Derptu, leaving the troops at night, terrified, whose consequence was a general Stampede.

Battle of 1578 he sparked interest far beyond the borders of Livonia. To satisfy the curiosity of the public in Europe in 1578-79 years. It was published by several newspapers. They probably are the only ones in the history of Western Europe, completely devoted to Cesisu, and the events surrounding it. The first of these (Newe Zeitung. Von der herrlichen victori und Sieg…) released at the end of 1578 he was soon followed by the rest. At that time, newspapers were as regular periodicals. They are published in the form of newsletters, they were issued to reflect any important events of interest to the society. A newspaper in 1579 he printed and published and the Nuremberg Publisher Leonard Heisler. According to the custom of the times lengthy subtitle, read: "the defeat of the Russians and the siege of the city of Cesis.

The heavy defeat of the Cesis ripped off attempts to attach to the Baltic States to Moscow. The Poles one by one d from liflândskie castles, and in early 1580 's. have full control here. Concluded in 1582 in the pit Zapol′skom 10-year-old truce between the poles and the Russians adopted the Commonwealth power over Liflândiej in the so called Livonian statute (Constitutiones Livoniae) and signed in 1583, the inability of the State showed plussa Moscow to continue to fight against Sweden. Defeat of the Livonian war produced heavy impression on Ivan the terrible. For the first time in his life he was unable to achieve the plan. During the war, Cēsis and its surroundings were heavily devastated. A traveler who visited Livonia in 1586, it said that fertile arable land overgrown with bushes and trees here, and the peasants had no horses, instead of which plows while women. The land between Riga and Tartu, in his words, turned into a desert, where there was "no singing cock, no barking dogs."

During the Livonian war the new Duchy of Livonia was divided into 4 counties: Riga, Cesis, Turaida and Daugavpils. In 1582 he instead of four counties by the Polish Sejm created 3 prezidiata-Cesis, Tartu and Pärnu. The Cēsu region included the land between the Gauja and Daugava, Latgale and as well. Managing Cēsis province did not live in the dilapidated Castle and chose their residence of Sigulda, in the same way as Marshal of the order. In 1598, the prezidiaty was renamed the province. Province were divided into city (Castle), County or district, and those, in turn, on the Manor and parish. Of the 16 voivodships of Cēsis (Administrator's offices in Riga, Cesis, Aizkraukle, Daugavgriva, Lielvarde, smiltene, Rauna, Skuene, Ludza, Rezekne, Daugavpils, etc.) in Cesis region after 1582 he was 3. At the head of the district, who is appointed by the Mayor, stood by the Polish King. Instead of a salary the captain received income from Crown lands, called estates of majors. Mayor of Cesis region lived in Cesis, Disassembled and Skuene.

1600 g began with the invasion of Swedish troops in Livland. Headed the Swedes stood for the last stage of the Livonian war, Duke Karl Sedermanlandskij (1550-1611). On the day the three wise men (6 January), the Swedes were already under the Cesis, where they have an unexpected clash with the poles. 400 Polish Cavalrymen made a Sally from the Castle and defeated the Swedish cavalry. Swedish horsemen running mixed ranks its infantry and took it for themselves. The Poles, however, had hoped to use his victory, because only too well aware that the balance of forces in Livonia for them unfavorably. So they ruined the Cēsis and headed to Riga. Mayhem in Cesis was solid-after the departure of Poles here, there are only 18 men, women and children, but the army so diligently razgrabilo city, that these people are starving.

More serious war Swedish troops in Livonia began only at the turn of the 1600-1601 BC. In 1601, the they have occupied other Raunu, Cēsis castles. In may 1601, Charles IX convened a Landtag in Cēsis, at which the German nobles to surrender to Sweden Livonia, because, they say, the Polish King was not fulfilling its promises and oppressing the Germans. More than just nobility was appointed local administrative positions of the Polish and Lithuanian nobility, as well as the distribution of estates of Catholics (hence not the Germans). However, in the course of the war, the 1601 in Livonia has changed dramatically. Poland, ending the war with the Ottoman Empire, could move in Livland very considerable military force. Setbacks on the battlefield forced Karl to become more responsive to the requirements of the plans of the landlords. In 1602,. It has regulated the Cēsis district of nobility law that brought peasants into serfs, the County since they assumed power of the landlords over the serfs.

During the period in 1603 to 1609 ad. Cesisskomu edge had to endure the most severe disasters, as in these years good luck in war was smiling that one side or the other, and both enemy army repeatedly took Livland in all directions. The devastation was not only the enemy, but also its own negligence. In the cellars of the southern enclosure (Festive halls) the Cēsis castle Polish soldiers equipped with powder. In one miserable day 1604 g. Managing locks, smoked a pipe, went down check it out … The explosion collapsed floor South building, premises and festive hall.

In 1611, the King Charles IX died, and the war ended to resume with renewed vigour in the 1620 's, when one of the most powerful and warlike Kings in the history of Sweden, Gustav II Adolf and resumed its struggle against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1628, the Polish Commander Gonsevskij briefly retook part of Livonia, but soon after the victories of the Swedish Commander Hurna under Cesis and Limbazi, was forced to retreat. Military luck moved to the side of the Swedes, who then that edge in 1629 by 1708 Gg. So ended the war, the heavy effects of which long reminded of what happened. Large areas were abandoned, many fields overgrown, famine and plague raged everywhere. The war destroyed the walls and towers of the town, very hard hit and the city itself, and two other cities of the region-Straupe and Raun-failed to overcome military disasters and since then, more like a city does not exist.

In the last stage of the Swedish-Polish war, July 7, 1627 as a reward for participation in determining the fate of Sweden, the Catholic bishopric of Cesis, Castle, Gorod and other possessions donated by the King received the State Chancellor of Sweden Axel Uksenšerna (Axel Oxenstierna; 1583-1654). Cēsis Uksenšerne taxes paid-50 thalers annually, and each year gave a third of the income of the city Treasury. In the hands of this region was Uksenšernov until 1680, when the reduction of the estates of the Swedish Government turned it into their property. In the archive Uksenšernov in Swedish Castle Tido have survived are important historical documents of the Cesis region-economic books liflândskih estates Uksenšernov. Gift of Gustav II Adolf's Chancellor Uksenšerne was truly Royal. He was given all of the former bishopric, in which the 13 estates in the mid-17th century covered 1143 arkla (about a third of all cultivated arklov Livonia), out of which 71 were directly arkle fields estates. Uksenšerny ownership made up about 20% of the whole territory of Latvia (Livonia). Among the holdings of the central place held the Cēsis castle estate. Along with the donation of two estates of the city of Cesis and Valmiera.

In 1654, the new Swedish-Polish-Russian war, which, although it was not as long as the war in the beginning of the century, however, again heavily devastated by the surroundings of Cesis. In 1657, the Poles took the Cēsis and Raunu: from kicked out. The prisoner May 3, 1660 between Sweden and Poland Treaty of Oliwa (this time already unconditionally) recognized the Livland property of Sweden.

After the Treaty of Oliwa for the 40-year-old came Livonia peaceful period, complicated by the fact that in 1681 he started so-called big reduction of estates. In accordance with the decision of the Swedish Riksdag from 1675, the owners of all grantees of their estates in 1604, the half of their income to be required to pay to cover the military costs (to finance Sweden heavily influenced by war with Brandenburg, Holland and Denmark 1675-1679 a.d.). Landowners resisted this, payments to the National Treasury had been irregular. Therefore, to increase public revenues, in 1680, the Riksdag decided to hold the reducer estates in Livonia. By 1681, the Government passed into the hands of the ancestral estate of Uksenšernov, and among them is the Cēsis castle estate.

In 1700, the great northern war began. 1704 year date from the war under the Cesis, ECHO which is reflected in the work of the Russian literary classics is a novel by a. Tolstogo "Petr the first". In 1708, Russian troops defeated the Swedes in Cesis. After the great northern war in 1721 by the Nishtadt peace area of the Town along with the rest of Latvia was annexed to Russia.

War and fires in a small town of Cesis turned. In 1730, the Empress Anna ioannovna referred the Cesis Castle and Manor of Priekuļi (not to be confused with Priekule!) over to her favorite Ernst Biron, future Duke of kurlândskomu. 7 years later, the castle of Cēsis estate as a gift from Empress Elizaveta Petrovna was Chancellor of Russia, count bestuzhev-ryumin. August 3, 1748 town, Town Hall, Church and Castle again completely burned out, that now makes it difficult to study the history of the Town since medieval city archives were lost. Documents on randomness experienced harsh wars XVI-XVIII centuries., drew in the ashes of a terrible fire. Therefore, past Events have to learn of documentary records of other cities or even countries, as well as by analogy with the history of other cities of medieval Livonian.

After bestuzhev-rjumin castle estate was owned by the family of Baron Wolf that so assaulted with his peasants, which in 1776-1777 Gg. peasant unrest broke out in the estate. Not feeling safe in the future, Baron Wolf considered advisable to sell the castle estate major box Cēsu k. Siversu of 96000 al′bertovskih thalers. The new owner in 1778 he ordered (using the ruins of the old Castle) on the foundations of its East building to build a new castle. Cesiskoe castle estate, gradually expands, belonged to the Siversam to the Latvian land reform, 1920.

In 1903, the Cēsis castle ruins along with other attractions visited artist, philosopher Nicholas Roerich with his wife. After the first world war, the Cēsis castle was completely abandoned. As written by e. Mugurevič, Latvian historians 20-30-ies. Of the 20th century the study of medieval castles the Livonian period almost never done, because as the legacy of the German feudal culture. The Cesis produced in 1927, the excavations had other goals: here hoped to find wealth of previous inhabitants of the Castle.

Next to the ruins of the Cēsis castle, the so-called New Castle, in 1949, the Cēsis History Museum is placed. It was founded by local teachers in 1925, and the greatest achievements in creating it belonged to. Ašmanu.

The remains of the original single-nave Chapel of the castle with fragments of late Romanesque white architectural detail. In the last quarter of 14-15 early in the castle was rebuilt by Castella (lock type characteristic of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia). To our days the walls of two buildings, articulated at right angles, the two lower tiers of the square in front of the Western Tower, located next to the entrance to the courtyard and traces of sets of internal premises and outdoor arched Gallery. Lined with boulders and flagstone walls, towers and buildings are cut through free hosted big and small window openings.

At the end of the 15-16 early in the Castle were attached to artillery round towers, the walls of which exceed 4 m: North (from within Hexagon), South (the so-called Long Herman), decorated with two decorative arkaturnymi zones, as well as the Lademahera and the Western Tower; a cylindrical main add-in Western Tower, which was given a personal quiet master, is a square room with richly decorated star Vault (finished in 1522 g.). Many times rebuilt, Castle of current architectural appearance found in the early 16 century when master Walter von Pletenberg (1494-1535 BC) rebuilt the two diagonally located relative to each other in terms of the tower-north and South.

The medieval town and the castle of the Livonian Order were surrounded by a protective wall of dolomite. Eight fortified towers guarded the city, four of them had the gate through which you can enter the city, while a fifth was entrance to Castle Tower. During the Livonian war, the castle was partially destroyed in the siege by troops of Ivan the terrible; Since the beginning of the 18 actually abandoned.

In 1777 he built the Tower Lademahera, the former forburga Tower and near it on the remains of forburga was erected which is still partially rebuilt as the so-called new castle is a two-storey Palace with mansard roof-the residence of count Karl Eberhard FON Sievers. In the 20-ies. 19 in the tower was again rebuilt-complemented by the third and fourth floors, performed in the Gothic style, Tower, four openings were enlarged and remodeled in the window.

In 1912-1914 Gg. above the main tower of the castle of Livonia was erected, the conical roof and vaulting in Star Chambers strengthened master; in 1937, the partially restored Pikk Hermann (which is usually called South); in 1952-1962 Gg. reinforced base of the North Tower, konservirovany wall. In 1949, the New Castle is Kunsthistorisches Museum, flag on the Tower resembles that of Cesis is the birthplace of the national flag of Latvia. In the garden of the Castle hosts various festivals, concerts of Chamber music, as well as the Baltic Festival of the middle ages and chivalry.

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